Mood disorders 1

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Mood disorders 1

مشاركةبواسطة pureheart في الخميس إبريل 07, 2011 4:24 pm

Major depression is one of the leading causes of disability in the United States. It affects almost 10 percent of the population, or 19 million Americans, in a given year. During their lifetimes, 10 to 25 percent of women and 5 to 12 percent of men will become clinically depressed. This preponderance has led to the consideration of depression by some researchers as "the common cold of psychiatric disorders" and this generation as an age of melancholia".
Bipolar affective disorder affects approximately 2.3 million American adults, or about 1.2 percent of the U.S population age 18 and older in a given year (National Institute of Mental Health, 2001).
Data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication suggest that the lifetime prevalence of developing major depressive disorder is 16.2%, with twice as many women developing the disorder. The lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder is about equal for men and women, 1.4% and 1.3%, respectively. Women have a life time prevalence of 21.3% for major depression and 8% for dysthymia, whereas men have a prevalence of only 12.7% for major depression and 4.8% for dysthymia. The incidence of bipolar disorder is roughly equal, with a ratio of women to men of 1.2 to 1.
Several studies have shown that the incidence of depression is higher in young women and has a tendency to decrease with age. The opposite has been found in men, with the prevalence of depressive symptoms being lower in younger men and increasing with age. The average age at onset for a first manic episode is the early twenties. The first episode of a mood disorder seems to be occurring at younger ages. The average age for onset of bipolar illness is the mid to late twenties although children and teenagers are now being diagnosed. Although the average age of onset for unipolar depression has been the middle 30s, there is some evidence that onset is occurring in younger individuals. The most frequent age of onset for depression is between 25 to 44years.Data indicate that when the onset of depression is at an early age (teens or early 20s) or at 55years or over, it is usually more prolonged and chronic. Persons presenting with depression that is diagnosed in their early 20s or 30s often report not having depression in their early years. Rates of depression do not significantly increase during menopause. The risk of developing depression and mania increases if there is positive family history for mood disorders.
Sociocultural factors
Results of studies have indicated an inverse relationship between social class and report of depressive symptoms. Bipolar disorder appears to occur more frequently among the higher socioeconomic classes.
Race and culture
Depression seems to occur less frequently in African Americans than in either white or Hispanic groups in U.S. Although depression and mania occurs through out the world, ethnicity and culture influences the expression of symptoms. For example, Asians describe more somatic symptoms of depression, whereas people from Western cultures describe more mood and cognitive changes.
In an increasingly stressful society characterized by mobility, family disruptions and economic stressors, women and younger persons are manifesting depression more than in previous generations. Persons with depression often seek help from their primary care providers for physical symptoms such as fatigue, insomnia, headache and loss of appetite. Research indicates that primary care providers do not always correctly diagnose depression or treat it appropriately.
Marital status
The highest incidence of depressive symptoms has been indicated in individuals without close interpersonal relationships and in persons who are divorced or separated. When gender and marital status are considered together, the differences reveal lowest rates of depressive symptoms among married men, and the highest among married women and single men.
Many studies revealed two prevalent periods of seasonal involvement: one in spring (March, April and May) and one in the fall (September, October and November). This pattern tends to parallel the seasonal patterns for suicide, which shows a large peak in the spring and a small
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