Mood disorders

المشرفون: pureheart, ooo

Mood disorders

مشاركةبواسطة pureheart في الخميس إبريل 07, 2011 4:16 pm

Introduction

Mood disorders sometimes known as affective disorders are a major public health problem in the United States. Data indicate that mood disorders are leading cause of disease burden, morbidty and mortality worldwide. Theses illnesses involve changes in all areas including physiology, cognition and behavior. In addition to the effects of mood disorders have on individual and family suffering, interpersonal relationships, career and work productivity, and societal and health system costs, these illnesses are also sometimes fatal: 15% of those afflicted commit suicide. Depression is also linked to morbidity and mortality when it is associated with other illnesses such as cardiovascular disease. As a result of these serious consequences, there has been ongoing research about the etiology, clinical course and outcomes and treatment modalities for mood disorders.

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES

  • Many ancient cultures (e.g. Babylonian, Egyptian, and Hebrew) believed in the supernatural or divine origin of depression and mania. The Old Testaments states in the Book of Samuel that King Saul's depression was inflicted by an evil spirit sent from the God to torment him.
  • Greek medical community form the 5th century B.C. thorough 3rd century AD had nondivine point of view regarding depressive and manic states. This represented the thinking of Hippocrates, Celsus and Galen and among others. They strongly rejected the idea of divine origin and considered the brain as the seat of all emotional states. Hippocrates believed that melancholia was caused by an excess of black bile, a heavily toxic substance produced in the spleen or intestine, which affected the brain.
  • During the Renaissance, several new theories evolved. Depression was viewed by some as being the result of obstruction of vital air circulation, excessive brooding or helpless situations beyond the individual's control. These strong emotions of depression and mania were reflected in major literary works of the time, including Shakespeare's King Lear, Macbeth and Hamlet.
  • In the 4th and 5th centuries BC ,the term melancholia was used by ancient Greeks to describe the dark mood of depression.
  • Hippocrates used the term melancholia to describe depression and, mania to describe the mental disturbances in clients. During the second century AD, Arteaeus of Cappadocia described cyclothymia as a form of mental with alternating periods of depression and mania. For centuries ,melancholia and cyclothymia were regarded to be separate disease entities rather than diverse expression of mood disorders.
  • In 1854 ,Jules Faret described a condition called folie circulaire, in which patients experience alternating moods of depression and mania.
  • By 1880, four categories of mood disorders existed: mania, melancholia, monomania, and dipsomania.
  • In 1882 ,a German psychiatrist, Karl Kahlbaum described melancholia and mania as a continuum of the same illness.
  • In 1889, Emil Kraepelin, reinforced Kahlbaum's theory about the continuum of depression. He introduced the category of manic depressive psychosis, citing the most of the criteria now used to establish the diagnosis of bipolar I disorder. He also introduced the category of involutional melancholia, now viewed as a mood disorder that that occurs in late adulthood.
  • In the 19th century ,the definition of mania was narrowed down from the concept of total madness to that of a disorder of affect and action. The old notion of melancholia was refurnished with meaning and emphasis was placed on the primary affective nature of the disorder.

Dates

Events

600BC

Early chronicles describe Nebuchadnezzar as suffering from wild erratic mood (probably mania) followed by profound depression.

300BC

Hippocrates related depression to the humidity of the brain. His theory of body substances ,called humors determined physical and mental health. Depression was blamed on a surplus of melancholy (black bile)

5AD

Attitude about hope changed with the spread of Christianity when St.Paul declared that hope stands with love.

1500s

During the Elizabethan period ,people prided themselves on being melancholic and and came to view it as a superior malady and mark of refinement among those deeply touched by the paths in life. The writings of Shakespeare and Robert Burton included depressive themes.

1800s

Dostoyevsky ,Poe and Hawthorne expressed inner anguish despair in the writings. Later poets such as Shelley accepted the fatalistic cynical view of the Greeks. Nietzsche wrote ,Hope is the worst of evils ,for it prolongs the torment of man.

1900s

Winston Churchill, by frequent referral to his " black dog " of depression ,suggested how familiar a companion his despair was.

1930s

ECT was introduced in Rome by two physicians who observed that epileptic client showed no evidence of schizophrenia. Thinking that seizures prevented schizophrenia, they promoted the use of artificially induced seizures to treat schizophrenia and depression.

1950s

Introduction of the first clinically effective antidepressant ,imipramine and MAOIs

1980s

An age of depression exists ,generated by the rising expectations for standards of living after world war II, coming up against the harsh realities of the population explosion, limited resources, inflation, unemployment and the possibility of nuclear warfare. The anxieties of the mid 1960s have given way to despair as a dominant mood. Suicide is a major health problem in U.S.

1990s

The antidepressant Prozac shows promise in treating depression without having the side effects associated with other antidepressants.

Future

The decade of the brain emerges with an emphasis on biological causes of depression such as disruption in the circadian rhythm, brain dysfunction and the role of genetics.
The stigma of depression and mental illness may diminish as biological causes are emphasized and replace the psychological causes of depression.
Nurses are challenged to contribute to the expanding knowledge of the biological aspects of the mental illness by the collaborative research with other discipline.
اللهم إليك أشكو ضعف قوتي وقلة حيلتي وهواني على الناس يا أرحم الراحمين أنت ربُّ المستضعفين
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